Category Archives: Endocrine

Thiazolidinediones (glitazones) may increase the risk of fracture in women

From the excellent blog “Prescribing Advice for GPs“: “The Journal of the Canadian Medical Association (CMAJ) has published the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis that aimed to quantify the fracture risk associated with glitazone therapy. There is also an accompanying editorial. This study has also reached the general media (BBC). The analysis examined data…Continue Reading

FDA: statins do not increase the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

From FDA’s patient safety news website: Statin Use and the Risk of ALS A recent FDA analysis provides new evidence that using statins does not increase the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease also known “Lou Gehrig’s Disease.” Cholesterol-lowering statins such as Lipitor (atorvastatin calcium) and Zocor (simvastatin) have been shown to…Continue Reading

Pharmacology mnemonic. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): side effects, contraindications, interactions

Pharmacology mnemonic about: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): side effects, contraindications, interactions HMG CoA:  Side effects: H epatotoxicity M yositis [aka rhabdomyolysis] _ Contraindications: G irl during pregnancy/G rowing children _ Interactions: C oumarin/ C yclosporine Also, check a related animation on their mechanism of action. Thanks to MedExcel

Aldosterone mechanism of action video animation

From Richard Harvey (series editor), Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology (LWW, 2008): ” Mineralocorticoids Mineralocorticoids help to control the body’s water volume and concentration of electrolytes, especially sodium and potassium. Aldosterone acts on kidney tubules and collecting ducts, causing a reabsorption of sodium, bicarbonate, and water.Continue Reading

Animation explaining mechanism of action of glucocorticoids and comparative glucocorticoids potencies table.

Mechanism of action of adrenocorticosteroids – from: Bertram G. Katzung, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (Mc Graw-Hill Medical, 2007) – “Most of the known effects of the glucocorticoids are mediated by widely distributed glucocorticoid receptors. These proteins are members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors that includes steroid, sterol (vitamin D), thyroid, retinoic acid, and many…Continue Reading

Alpha 1 adrenergic receptors antagonists (blockers): mechanism of action animation

Additional information about alpha 1 blocking drugs.  Source: Bertram G. Katzung, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (Mc Graw-Hill Medical, 2007) ” Phentolamine, an imidazoline derivative, is a potent competitive antagonist at both alpha 1 and alpha 2 receptors . Phentolamine causes a reduction in peripheral resistance through blockade of alpha 1 receptors and possibly alpha 2…Continue Reading

Epinephrine (adrenaline) mechanism of action: animation showing the signal transduction process

Drugs related to this animation Adrenoceptor-Activating & Other Sympathomimetic Drugs:Dobutamine, Ephedrine, Epinephrine, Hydroxyamphetamine, Isoproterenol, Methylphenidate, Naphazoline, Norepinephrine. Source of animation: Lodish, et al., Molecular Cell Biology, Fifth Edition, W. H. Freeman & Co.Developed by Sumanas, Inc.

Estradiol receptor signal transduction: 3-D video animations explaining its mechanism of action.

Two excelent 3D animations about the mechanism of action of estradiol in the activation of estradiol receptor. Additional information from Wikipedia article on estrogen receptor: “There are two types of estrogen receptor, ER is a member of the nuclear hormone family of intracellular receptors which is activated by the hormone 17β-estradiol[1] (estrogen), while the estrogen…

Zoledronic acid: summary review and side effects profile published on the NPS RADAR

An excerpt of the summary review and side effects profile of Zoledronic acid, published on the australian NPS RADAR: Zoledronic acid is an intravenous bisphosphonate. It is given as a once-yearly infusion for osteoporosis in women with any fracture, and in men with a minimal-trauma hip fracture. Some patients may prefer zoledronic acid to oral…Continue Reading

NPS RADAR: Rosiglitazone is a third-line choice in diabetes type 2 treatment

Summary of the review of the NPS RADAR on rosiglitazone (Avandia) Rosiglitazone improves glycaemic control but there is a lack of evidence that it improves diabetes–related clinical complications and mortality. Prescribers should consider this —along with recently emerging safety information — when assessing the ratio of potential harms and benefits for each patient. Rosiglitazone is…Continue Reading

EMEA: Physicians should not prescribe Acomplia (rimonabant)

The European Medicines Agency recommends suspension of the marketing authorisation of Acomplia The European Medicines Agency (EMEA) has recommended the suspension of the marketing authorisation for Acomplia (rimonabant) from Sanofi-Aventis. The EMEA’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has concluded that the benefits of Acomplia no longer outweigh its risks and the marketing authorisation…

Cheap generic statins are just as successful at achieving cholesterol lowering targets

Can cheap generic statins achieve national cholesterol lowering targets? Duncan Petty , David Lloyd 1 School of Healthcare, University of Leeds, Leeds; 1 Prescribing Support Unit, The Information Centre for Health and Social Care, Leeds, UK Objectives: The Department of Health in England recommend that simvastatin and pravastatin should be prescribed in at least 69%…

Atrial fibrillation and bisphosphonates: FDA Medwatch update

FDA issued an update to the Agency’s review of safety data regarding the potential increased risk of atrial fibrillation in patients treated with a bisphosphonate drug. Bisphosphonates marketed as Alendronate (Fosamax, Fosamax Plus D) Etidronate (Didronel) Ibandronate (Boniva) Pamidronate (Aredia) Risedronate (Actonel, Actonel W/Calcium) Tiludronate (Skelid) Zoledronic acid (Reclast, Zometa) Bisphosphonates are a class of…

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