Category Archives: Internal Medicine

FDA: statins do not increase the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

From FDA’s patient safety news website: Statin Use and the Risk of ALS A recent FDA analysis provides new evidence that using statins does not increase the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease also known “Lou Gehrig’s Disease.” Cholesterol-lowering statins such as Lipitor (atorvastatin calcium) and Zocor (simvastatin) have been shown to…Continue Reading

Protein synthesis inhibitors: macrolides mechanism of action animation. Classification of agents

Author: Gary Kaiser Biology Department The Community College of Baltimore County, Catonsville Campus Baltimore, MD 21228 USA Email: gkaiser@ccbcmd.edu From Richard Harvey (series editor), Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology (LWW, 2008): “Macrolides mechanism of action (MOA) The macrolides bind irreversibly to a site on the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thus inhibiting the translocation steps…Continue Reading

FDA video on Ephedrine and Epinephrine: how to prevent mistakes in their administration.

From FDA Patient Safety News: “Drug Name Confusion: Ephedrine and Epinephrine The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) is warning again about the possibility of mix-ups between ephedrine and epinephrine. Not only do the names of these drugs look and sound similar, but since they’re both used as vasopressors and vasoconstrictors, they’re often stored next…Continue Reading

Aldosterone mechanism of action video animation

From Richard Harvey (series editor), Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology (LWW, 2008): ” Mineralocorticoids Mineralocorticoids help to control the body’s water volume and concentration of electrolytes, especially sodium and potassium. Aldosterone acts on kidney tubules and collecting ducts, causing a reabsorption of sodium, bicarbonate, and water.Continue Reading

Protein synthesis inhibitors: aminoglycosides mechanism of action animation. Classification of agents

The following animation depicts the mechanism of action of aminoglycosides. This antibiotic class includes drugs such as gentamicin, streptomycin (used for TB treatment), amikacin, among others. Aminoglycosides mechanism Susceptible gram-negative organisms allow aminoglycosides to diffuse through porin channels in their outer membranes. These organisms also have an oxygen-dependent system that transports the drug across the…

Animation explaining mechanism of action of glucocorticoids and comparative glucocorticoids potencies table.

Mechanism of action of adrenocorticosteroids – from: Bertram G. Katzung, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (Mc Graw-Hill Medical, 2007) – “Most of the known effects of the glucocorticoids are mediated by widely distributed glucocorticoid receptors. These proteins are members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors that includes steroid, sterol (vitamin D), thyroid, retinoic acid, and many…Continue Reading

Alpha 1 adrenergic receptors antagonists (blockers): mechanism of action animation

Additional information about alpha 1 blocking drugs.  Source: Bertram G. Katzung, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (Mc Graw-Hill Medical, 2007) ” Phentolamine, an imidazoline derivative, is a potent competitive antagonist at both alpha 1 and alpha 2 receptors . Phentolamine causes a reduction in peripheral resistance through blockade of alpha 1 receptors and possibly alpha 2…Continue Reading

Epinephrine (adrenaline) mechanism of action: animation showing the signal transduction process

Drugs related to this animation Adrenoceptor-Activating & Other Sympathomimetic Drugs:Dobutamine, Ephedrine, Epinephrine, Hydroxyamphetamine, Isoproterenol, Methylphenidate, Naphazoline, Norepinephrine. Source of animation: Lodish, et al., Molecular Cell Biology, Fifth Edition, W. H. Freeman & Co.Developed by Sumanas, Inc.

Osteoarthritis treatment podcast: NSAIDs, opioids, glucosamine and other therapies

In this podcast, the team of Therapeutics Initiative  reviews the pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments for osteoarthritis. “In our 32nd episode we review the therapeutic options for the treatment of osteoarthritis. We first deal with lifestyle interventions for osteoarthritis. We consider the pain pharmaceuticals like acetaminophen, topical or oral NSAIDs, and opiates as well as…

EMEA: Physicians should not prescribe Acomplia (rimonabant)

The European Medicines Agency recommends suspension of the marketing authorisation of Acomplia The European Medicines Agency (EMEA) has recommended the suspension of the marketing authorisation for Acomplia (rimonabant) from Sanofi-Aventis. The EMEA’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has concluded that the benefits of Acomplia no longer outweigh its risks and the marketing authorisation…

Anticholinergics mechanism of action in bronchodilation

Some additional information from Goodman & Gilman’s Anticholinergic Agents With the advent of inhaled beta adrenergic agonists, use of anticholinergic agents declined. Renewed interest in anticholinergic agents paralleled the realization that parasympathetic pathways are important in bronchospasm in some asthmatics and the availability of ipratropium bromide (ATROVENT), a quaternary muscarinic receptor antagonist that has better…

Beta lactams antibiotics (penicillins and cephalosporins) mechanism of action: videos and animations

Mechanism of action of the beta lactam antibiotics (penicillins and cephalosporins) The beta-lactam antibiotics can kill susceptible bacteria. Although knowledge of the mechanism of this action is incomplete, numerous researchers have supplied information that allows understanding of the basic phenomenon (seeGhuysen, 1991; Bayles, 2000). The cell walls of bacteria are essential for their normal growth…Continue Reading

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