Category Archives: Pharmacology animations

Video animation: mechanism of ionotropic receptors or ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs)

In pharmacology, receptors can be divided into 4 general groups: 1. Ion channels: Ligand gatedace Voltage gated Second messenger regulated 2. G protein coupled receptors 3. Receptor tyrosine kinase 4. Intracellular hormone receptors: like  the glucocorticoid receptor The video animation below shows the activation of a ionotropic receptor or ligand-gated ion channel (LGIC): An excerpt…

Linezolid (an oxazolidinone): mechanism of action animation

This animation depicts the mechanism of action of linezolid (Zyvox): Further reading Gilbert, D; Moellering R (editors) “Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy”, 39th edition. Antimicrobial therapy: 2009 Hauser, A. “Antibiotic Basics for Clinicians: Choosing the Right Antibacterial Agent”.1st edition. LWW:2007 Gallagher, J. “Antibiotics Simplified”. 1st edition. Jones & Bartlett Publishers: 2008

Animation of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and fibrates mechanism of action. PPAR activation movie

This excellent animation from the Hybrid team shows in detail the process of activation of the PPAR receptor, its interaction with the RXR and the ligand. This animation is an excellent oportunity to review the drugs that act as ligands of the PPAR receptor and its subtypes (Alpha and Gamma). Novel agents that target PPAR…

Mechanism of action video animation: ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and the Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System

Also, a diagram of the Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS System) physiology. Drugs acting on the Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System. ACE Inhibitors. List of agents Sulfhydryl-containing agents Captopril (Capoten), Zofenopril Dicarboxylate-containing agents Enalapril (Vasotec, Renitec) Ramipril (Altace, Tritace, Ramace, Ramiwin) Quinapril (Accupril) Perindopril (Coversyl, Aceon) Lisinopril (Lisodur, Lopril, Novatec, Prinivil, Zestril) Benazepril (Lotensin) Phosphonate-containing agents…

Protein bound paclitaxel (Abraxane) mechanism of action. 3D video animations

What is Protein bound paclitaxel (Abraxane) ? Source: National Cancer Institute protein-bound paclitaxel (PROH-teen… PAK-lih-TAK-sil) A drug used to treat breast cancer that has spread or that has come back within 6 months after chemotherapy. It is also being studied in the treatment of newly diagnosed breast cancer and other types of cancer. Protein-bound paclitaxel…

HIV fusion inhibitors mechanism of action. A video animation

This animation represents the third step in HIV cell entry: fusion. It identifies gp41 as a drug target (Enfuvirtide). Mechanism of action of enfuvirtide (Fuzeon). From Wikipedia Enfuvirtide works by disrupting the HIV-1 molecular machinery at the final stage of fusion with the target cell, preventing uninfected cells from becoming infected.Continue Reading

Thrombin inhibition: video animation explaining bivalirudin (Angiomax, Angiox) mechanism of action

Chemistry and mechanism of action of bivalirudin (Angiox, Angiomax), from Wikipedia: Chemically it constitutes a synthetic congener of the naturally occurring drug hirudin (found in the saliva of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis). Both bivalirudin and hirudin directly inhibit thrombin by specifically binding as well to the catalytic site and to the anion-binding exosite of…

HIV protease inhibitors: animation showing their mechanism of action

About the HIV-1 protease, from Wikipedia: HIV-1 protease (HIV PR) is an aspartic protease that is essential for the life-cycle of HIV, the retrovirus that causes AIDS. HIV PR cleaves newly synthesized polyproteins at the appropriate places to create the mature protein components of an infectious HIV virion. Without effective HIV PR, HIV virions remain…Continue Reading

Second messenger system animation. IP3 signal transduction pathway

Created by Department of Biology, Davidson College, Davidson, NC 28036 More information about inositol trisphosphate from the WIkipedia article about IP3 : Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or IP3), together with diacylglycerol, is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction in biological cells. It is made by…Continue Reading

Pharmacokinetics. First order kinetics definition and animation.

The following pharmacological definition has been taken from the Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Department Glossary at Boston University School of Medicine. First Order Kinetics: According to the law of mass action, the velocity of a chemical reaction is proportional to the product of the active masses (concentrations) of the reactants.Continue Reading

Video animation on renal physiology and diuretics mechanism of action.

Mechanism of action of loop diuretics ( Source: Bertram Katzung, Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Mc Graw Hill Medical, 2007): Pharmacodynamics These drugs inhibit NKCC2, the luminal Na+/K+/2Cl- transporter in the thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop. By inhibiting this transporter, the loop diureticsContinue Reading

Aldosterone mechanism of action video animation

From Richard Harvey (series editor), Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology (LWW, 2008): ” Mineralocorticoids Mineralocorticoids help to control the body’s water volume and concentration of electrolytes, especially sodium and potassium. Aldosterone acts on kidney tubules and collecting ducts, causing a reabsorption of sodium, bicarbonate, and water.Continue Reading

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