Category Archives: Pharmacology animations

Protein synthesis inhibitors: aminoglycosides mechanism of action animation. Classification of agents

The following animation depicts the mechanism of action of aminoglycosides. This antibiotic class includes drugs such as gentamicin, streptomycin (used for TB treatment), amikacin, among others. Aminoglycosides mechanism Susceptible gram-negative organisms allow aminoglycosides to diffuse through porin channels in their outer membranes. These organisms also have an oxygen-dependent system that transports the drug across theContinue Reading

Protein synthesis inhibitors: tetracyclines mechanism of action animation. Classification of agents

Author Gary Kaiser Biology Department The Community College of Baltimore County, Catonsville Campus Baltimore, MD 21228 USA Email: gkaiser@ccbcmd.edu From Richard Harvey (series editor), Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology (LWW, 2008): ” Tetracyclines The tetracyclines are a group of closely related compounds that, as the name implies, consist of four fused rings with a system ofContinue Reading

Animation explaining mechanism of action of glucocorticoids and comparative glucocorticoids potencies table.

Mechanism of action of adrenocorticosteroids – from: Bertram G. Katzung, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (Mc Graw-Hill Medical, 2007) – “Most of the known effects of the glucocorticoids are mediated by widely distributed glucocorticoid receptors. These proteins are members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors that includes steroid, sterol (vitamin D), thyroid, retinoic acid, and manyContinue Reading

Alpha 1 adrenergic receptors antagonists (blockers): mechanism of action animation

Additional information about alpha 1 blocking drugs.  Source: Bertram G. Katzung, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (Mc Graw-Hill Medical, 2007) ” Phentolamine, an imidazoline derivative, is a potent competitive antagonist at both alpha 1 and alpha 2 receptors . Phentolamine causes a reduction in peripheral resistance through blockade of alpha 1 receptors and possibly alpha 2Continue Reading

Epinephrine (adrenaline) mechanism of action: animation showing the signal transduction process

Drugs related to this animation Adrenoceptor-Activating & Other Sympathomimetic Drugs:Dobutamine, Ephedrine, Epinephrine, Hydroxyamphetamine, Isoproterenol, Methylphenidate, Naphazoline, Norepinephrine. Source of animation: Lodish, et al., Molecular Cell Biology, Fifth Edition, W. H. Freeman & Co.Developed by Sumanas, Inc.Continue Reading

Estradiol receptor signal transduction: 3-D video animations explaining its mechanism of action.

Two excelent 3D animations about the mechanism of action of estradiol in the activation of estradiol receptor. Additional information from Wikipedia article on estrogen receptor: “There are two types of estrogen receptor, ER is a member of the nuclear hormone family of intracellular receptors which is activated by the hormone 17β-estradiol[1] (estrogen), while the estrogenContinue Reading

Pharmacodynamics animation: full agonists, partial agonists, inverse agonists, competitive antagonists and irreversible antagonists.

First, some pharmacodynamic definitions related to the animation: Full Agonists: Compounds that are able to elicit a maximal response following receptor occupation and activation. Partial Agonists: Compounds that can activate receptors but are unable to elicit the maximal response of the receptor system. Inverse agonist: an agent which binds to the same receptor binding-site asContinue Reading

Drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system: animation showing their mechanism of action

The following is a list of drugs related to the animation: Adrenoceptor-Activating & Other Sympathomimetic Drugs Dobutamine, Ephedrine, Epinephrine, Hydroxyamphetamine, Isoproterenol, Methylphenidate, Naphazoline, Norepinephrine. Adrenoceptor Antagonist Drugs Acebutolol, Atenolol, Betaxolol, Bisoprolol, Carteolol, Carvedilo,l Carvedilol, Esmolol, Labetalol, Metoprolol, Nadolol, Pindolol, Propranolol, Sotalol, Timolol. Cholinoceptor-Activating (Acetylcholine receptor stimulants) Acetylcholine, Bethanechol, Carbachol, Cevimeline, Pilocarpine. Cholinoceptor-Blocking Drugs (Cholinoceptor antagonists)Continue Reading

Anticholinergics mechanism of action in bronchodilation

Some additional information from Goodman & Gilman’s Anticholinergic Agents With the advent of inhaled beta adrenergic agonists, use of anticholinergic agents declined. Renewed interest in anticholinergic agents paralleled the realization that parasympathetic pathways are important in bronchospasm in some asthmatics and the availability of ipratropium bromide (ATROVENT), a quaternary muscarinic receptor antagonist that has betterContinue Reading

Beta lactams antibiotics (penicillins and cephalosporins) mechanism of action: videos and animations

Mechanism of action of the beta lactam antibiotics (penicillins and cephalosporins) The beta-lactam antibiotics can kill susceptible bacteria. Although knowledge of the mechanism of this action is incomplete, numerous researchers have supplied information that allows understanding of the basic phenomenon (seeGhuysen, 1991; Bayles, 2000). The cell walls of bacteria are essential for their normal growthContinue Reading

Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance: video animations produced by FDA

The following video explains the mechanisms that bacteria use to develop antibiotic resistance: Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance Mutation Destruction or Inactivation Efflux ( 1:00) Genetic Transfer Conjugation Transformation TransductionContinue Reading

Cisplatin mechanism of action: 3-D video animation

Mechanism of Action. Cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin enter cells by diffusion, and by an active Cu2+ transporter (Kruh, 2003). Inside the cell, the chloride atoms of cisplatin may be displaced and the compound may be inactivated directly by reaction with nucleophiles such as thiols. Chloride is replaced by water, yielding a positively charged molecule. InContinue Reading

G protein-coupled receptors: 3-D video and text

G protein-coupled receptors are the most abundant class of receptors in the human body. These receptors are exposed at the extracellular surface of the cell membrane, traverse the membrane, and possess intracellular regions that activate a unique class of signaling molecules called G proteins. (G proteins are so named because they bind the guanine nucleotidesContinue Reading

Animation: insulin secretion and sulfonylureas mechanism of action

Animation that depicts how sulfonylureas enhance insulin secretion by binding to specific beta cell receptors. Download availableContinue Reading

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