Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) mechanism of action. A video animation

Mechanism of action of PPI’s. Source: Wikipedia Proton pump inhibitors act by irreversibly blocking the hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase enzyme system (the H+/K+ ATPase, or more commonly just gastric proton pump) of the gastric parietal cell. The proton pump is the terminal stage in gastric acid secretion, being directly responsible for secreting H+ ions into the […]

HIV protease inhibitors: animation showing their mechanism of action

About the HIV-1 protease, from Wikipedia: HIV-1 protease (HIV PR) is an aspartic protease that is essential for the life-cycle of HIV, the retrovirus that causes AIDS. HIV PR cleaves newly synthesized polyproteins at the appropriate places to create the mature protein components of an infectious HIV virion. Without effective HIV PR, HIV virions remain […]

Video animation on renal physiology and diuretics mechanism of action.

Mechanism of action of loop diuretics ( Source: Bertram Katzung, Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Mc Graw Hill Medical, 2007): Pharmacodynamics These drugs inhibit NKCC2, the luminal Na+/K+/2Cl– transporter in the thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop. By inhibiting this transporter, the loop diuretics

Aldosterone mechanism of action video animation

From Richard Harvey (series editor), Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology (LWW, 2008): ” Mineralocorticoids Mineralocorticoids help to control the body’s water volume and concentration of electrolytes, especially sodium and potassium. Aldosterone acts on kidney tubules and collecting ducts, causing a reabsorption of sodium, bicarbonate, and water.

Protein synthesis inhibitors: aminoglycosides mechanism of action animation. Classification of agents

The following animation depicts the mechanism of action of aminoglycosides. This antibiotic class includes drugs such as gentamicin, streptomycin (used for TB treatment), amikacin, among others. Aminoglycosides mechanism Susceptible gram-negative organisms allow aminoglycosides to diffuse through porin channels in their outer membranes. These organisms also have an oxygen-dependent system that transports the drug across the […]

Protein synthesis inhibitors: tetracyclines mechanism of action animation. Classification of agents

Author Gary Kaiser Biology Department The Community College of Baltimore County, Catonsville Campus Baltimore, MD 21228 USA Email: gkaiser@ccbcmd.edu From Richard Harvey (series editor), Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology (LWW, 2008): ” Tetracyclines The tetracyclines are a group of closely related compounds that, as the name implies, consist of four fused rings with a system of […]

Animation explaining mechanism of action of glucocorticoids and comparative glucocorticoids potencies table.

Mechanism of action of adrenocorticosteroids – from: Bertram G. Katzung, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (Mc Graw-Hill Medical, 2007) – “Most of the known effects of the glucocorticoids are mediated by widely distributed glucocorticoid receptors. These proteins are members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors that includes steroid, sterol (vitamin D), thyroid, retinoic acid, and many […]

Alpha 1 adrenergic receptors antagonists (blockers): mechanism of action animation

Additional information about alpha 1 blocking drugs.¬† Source: Bertram G. Katzung, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (Mc Graw-Hill Medical, 2007) ” Phentolamine, an imidazoline derivative, is a potent competitive antagonist at both alpha 1 and alpha 2 receptors . Phentolamine causes a reduction in peripheral resistance through blockade of alpha 1 receptors and possibly alpha 2 […]

Drugs acting on the autonomic nervous system: animation showing their mechanism of action

The following is a list of drugs related to the animation: Adrenoceptor-Activating & Other Sympathomimetic Drugs Dobutamine, Ephedrine, Epinephrine, Hydroxyamphetamine, Isoproterenol, Methylphenidate, Naphazoline, Norepinephrine. Adrenoceptor Antagonist Drugs Acebutolol, Atenolol, Betaxolol, Bisoprolol, Carteolol, Carvedilo,l Carvedilol, Esmolol, Labetalol, Metoprolol, Nadolol, Pindolol, Propranolol, Sotalol, Timolol. Cholinoceptor-Activating (Acetylcholine receptor stimulants) Acetylcholine, Bethanechol, Carbachol, Cevimeline, Pilocarpine. Cholinoceptor-Blocking Drugs (Cholinoceptor antagonists) […]