Category Archives: Antibiotics

PowerPoint: overview of cephalosporins pharmacology

This presentation is focused on the core characteristics of cephalosporins as a group. It highlights the differences in terms of bacterial coverage between different generations, using some clinical uses as examples.

PowerPoint: cephalosporins pharmacology

Lecture outline:

  • Chemical characteristics of beta-lactams.
  • Mechanism of action.
  • First, second, third and fourth  generation cephalosporins drug list.
  • Bacterial coverage of first, second, third and fourth generation cephalosporins.
  • Clinical uses.
  • Adverse effects.
  • Ceftriaxone and meningitis.

Further reading

Gilbert, D; Moellering R (editors) “Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy”, 39th edition. Antimicrobial therapy: 2009

Hauser, A. “Antibiotic Basics for Clinicians: Choosing the Right Antibacterial Agent”.1st edition. LWW:2007

Gallagher, J. “Antibiotics Simplified“. 1st edition. Jones & Bartlett Publishers: 2008

Clinical guidelines on pneumonia management and treatment

This post features two clinical guidelines on the management of community acquired pneumonia.

The British Thoracic Society updated this year many recommendations, including when to order a chest X-ray, and antibiotic management.

The guidelines issued by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the AmericanThoracic Society have relevant recommendations concerning empirical antimicrobial therapy and its duration.Continue Reading

Vancomycin mechanism of action: an animation

Vancomycin is a tricyclic glycopeptide that has gained clinical importance thanks to its effectiveness against organisms such as MRSA and enterococci. It has activity against Gram-positive rods and cocci, Gram-negative rods are resistant to its bactericidal action. Some clinical uses of IV vancomycin include treatment of infective endocarditis and sepsis caused by MRSA. Since vancomycin…

FDA video: interaction of IV ceftriaxone with calcium-containing products

The FDA updated the full prescribing information of ceftriaxone (Rocephin and generics). This is an update to a previous ( september 2007) alert on the risk of interaction between ceftriaxone and calcium-containing IV products, the 2007 alert was based on reported fatal cases in neonates.Continue Reading

SMC recommendations for doripenem : second or third line treatment of intra-abdominal infections

The Scottish Medicines Consortium issued an advice on the current indications for doripenem (Doribax): Doripenem (Doribax) is accepted for restricted use within NHS Scotland for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections in adults. In patients with complicated intra-abdominal infection, doripenem is associated with clinical cure rates non-inferior to those of another carbapenem. Doripenem should be…

Free download: pharmacology flash cards. Antibiotics, antivirals, antiretrovirals and antitubercular drugs

The Department of Pharmacology of the University of Utah has developed some study aids available at their website. Below is the summary of the file on antibiotics and related drugs, and the link to the original file. Antibacterial Drugs Sulfonamides: Sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin), Sulfamethoxazole (Gantanol), Sulfadiazine, Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine), Sulfacetamide sodium (Sulamyd Sodium) Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra) Chloramphenicol…

NCLEX pharmacology video review: antibiotics

This video pharmacology review for nurses deals with antibiotics: penicilins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, vancomycin and others. Part 2 covers: macrolides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, quinolones, and sulfonamides. There is a related animation that explains  linezolid mechanism. More on nursing pharmacology Further reading Gilbert, D; Moellering R (editors) “Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy”, 39th edition. Antimicrobial therapy: 2009 Hauser,…

Linezolid (an oxazolidinone): mechanism of action animation

This animation depicts the mechanism of action of linezolid (Zyvox): Further reading Gilbert, D; Moellering R (editors) “Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy”, 39th edition. Antimicrobial therapy: 2009 Hauser, A. “Antibiotic Basics for Clinicians: Choosing the Right Antibacterial Agent”.1st edition. LWW:2007 Gallagher, J. “Antibiotics Simplified”. 1st edition. Jones & Bartlett Publishers: 2008

Review of retapamulin (Altargo), a new topical antibiotic for skin infections

Information from Health Canada about retapaumulin (Altargo), a pleuromutilin antibiotic for the treatment of impetigo and skin infections. On March 19, 2008, Health Canada issued a Notice of Compliance to GlaxoSmithKline Inc. for the drug product AltargoTM. AltargoTM contains the medicinal ingredient retapamulin which is an antibiotic. AltargoTM is indicated for use in adult and…Continue Reading

Protein synthesis inhibitors: macrolides mechanism of action animation. Classification of agents

Author: Gary Kaiser Biology Department The Community College of Baltimore County, Catonsville Campus Baltimore, MD 21228 USA Email: gkaiser@ccbcmd.edu From Richard Harvey (series editor), Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology (LWW, 2008): “Macrolides mechanism of action (MOA) The macrolides bind irreversibly to a site on the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thus inhibiting the translocation steps…Continue Reading

Protein synthesis inhibitors: aminoglycosides mechanism of action animation. Classification of agents

The following animation depicts the mechanism of action of aminoglycosides. This antibiotic class includes drugs such as gentamicin, streptomycin (used for TB treatment), amikacin, among others. Aminoglycosides mechanism Susceptible gram-negative organisms allow aminoglycosides to diffuse through porin channels in their outer membranes. These organisms also have an oxygen-dependent system that transports the drug across the…

Protein synthesis inhibitors: tetracyclines mechanism of action animation. Classification of agents

Author Gary Kaiser Biology Department The Community College of Baltimore County, Catonsville Campus Baltimore, MD 21228 USA Email: gkaiser@ccbcmd.edu From Richard Harvey (series editor), Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology (LWW, 2008): ” Tetracyclines The tetracyclines are a group of closely related compounds that, as the name implies, consist of four fused rings with a system of…Continue Reading

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