This animation represents the third step in HIV cell entry: fusion. It identifies gp41 as a drug target (Enfuvirtide). Mechanism of action of enfuvirtide (Fuzeon). From Wikipedia Enfuvirtide works by disrupting the HIV-1 molecular machinery at the final stage of fusion with the target cell, preventing uninfected cells from becoming infected.
About the HIV-1 protease, from Wikipedia: HIV-1 protease (HIV PR) is an aspartic protease that is essential for the life-cycle of HIV, the retrovirus that causes AIDS. HIV PR cleaves newly synthesized polyproteins at the appropriate places to create the mature protein components of an infectious HIV virion. Without effective HIV PR, HIV virions remain […]
The following pharmacological definition has been taken from the Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Department Glossary at Boston University School of Medicine. First Order Kinetics: According to the law of mass action, the velocity of a chemical reaction is proportional to the product of the active masses (concentrations) of the reactants.
Mechanism of action of loop diuretics ( Source: Bertram Katzung, Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Mc Graw Hill Medical, 2007): Pharmacodynamics These drugs inhibit NKCC2, the luminal Na+/K+/2Cl– transporter in the thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop. By inhibiting this transporter, the loop diuretics
Author: Gary Kaiser Biology Department The Community College of Baltimore County, Catonsville Campus Baltimore, MD 21228 USA Email: firstname.lastname@example.org From Richard Harvey (series editor), Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology (LWW, 2008): “Macrolides mechanism of action (MOA) The macrolides bind irreversibly to a site on the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thus inhibiting the translocation steps […]
From Richard Harvey (series editor), Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology (LWW, 2008): ” Mineralocorticoids Mineralocorticoids help to control the body’s water volume and concentration of electrolytes, especially sodium and potassium. Aldosterone acts on kidney tubules and collecting ducts, causing a reabsorption of sodium, bicarbonate, and water.
Protein synthesis inhibitors: aminoglycosides mechanism of action animation. Classification of agents
The following animation depicts the mechanism of action of aminoglycosides. This antibiotic class includes drugs such as gentamicin, streptomycin (used for TB treatment), amikacin, among others. Aminoglycosides mechanism Susceptible gram-negative organisms allow aminoglycosides to diffuse through porin channels in their outer membranes. These organisms also have an oxygen-dependent system that transports the drug across the […]
Author Gary Kaiser Biology Department The Community College of Baltimore County, Catonsville Campus Baltimore, MD 21228 USA Email: email@example.com From Richard Harvey (series editor), Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology (LWW, 2008): ” Tetracyclines The tetracyclines are a group of closely related compounds that, as the name implies, consist of four fused rings with a system of […]
Animation explaining mechanism of action of glucocorticoids and comparative glucocorticoids potencies table.
Mechanism of action of adrenocorticosteroids – from: Bertram G. Katzung, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (Mc Graw-Hill Medical, 2007) – “Most of the known effects of the glucocorticoids are mediated by widely distributed glucocorticoid receptors. These proteins are members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors that includes steroid, sterol (vitamin D), thyroid, retinoic acid, and many […]
Additional information about alpha 1 blocking drugs. Source: Bertram G. Katzung, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (Mc Graw-Hill Medical, 2007) ” Phentolamine, an imidazoline derivative, is a potent competitive antagonist at both alpha 1 and alpha 2 receptors . Phentolamine causes a reduction in peripheral resistance through blockade of alpha 1 receptors and possibly alpha 2 […]
Drugs related to this animation Adrenoceptor-Activating & Other Sympathomimetic Drugs:Dobutamine, Ephedrine, Epinephrine, Hydroxyamphetamine, Isoproterenol, Methylphenidate, Naphazoline, Norepinephrine. Source of animation: Lodish, et al., Molecular Cell Biology, Fifth Edition, W. H. Freeman & Co.Developed by Sumanas, Inc.
Two excelent 3D animations about the mechanism of action of estradiol in the activation of estradiol receptor. Additional information from Wikipedia article on estrogen receptor: “There are two types of estrogen receptor, ER is a member of the nuclear hormone family of intracellular receptors which is activated by the hormone 17β-estradiol (estrogen), while the estrogen […]
Pharmacodynamics animation: full agonists, partial agonists, inverse agonists, competitive antagonists and irreversible antagonists.
First, some pharmacodynamic definitions related to the animation: Full Agonists: Compounds that are able to elicit a maximal response following receptor occupation and activation. Partial Agonists: Compounds that can activate receptors but are unable to elicit the maximal response of the receptor system. Inverse agonist: an agent which binds to the same receptor binding-site as […]
Some additional information from Goodman & Gilman’s Anticholinergic Agents With the advent of inhaled beta adrenergic agonists, use of anticholinergic agents declined. Renewed interest in anticholinergic agents paralleled the realization that parasympathetic pathways are important in bronchospasm in some asthmatics and the availability of ipratropium bromide (ATROVENT), a quaternary muscarinic receptor antagonist that has better […]