Category Archives: CNS drugs

Citalopram and Escitalopram compared

There are significant differences between these two SSRIs. The FDA warned about the risk of QT prolongation with high doses of citalopram, but not escitalopram. Dosing is different too. To learn more about these similarities and differences check the following video published at the Psychopharmacology Institute website: Citalopram and Escitalopram: A Summary of Key Differences and SimilaritiesContinue Reading

Benzodiazepines mechanism of action

Benzodiazepines and GABA receptors: an animation on their mechanism of action Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an inhibiting neurotransmitter that is present on human brains. As shown in the animation, gamma amino butyric acid promotes opening of a postsynaptic receptor, the GABA-A receptor. This opening leads to a increased conductance to cloride ions, whichContinue Reading

Video: Side effects of SSRIs

The following video is a short overview on the pharmacological basis of SSRIs side effects. Outline: Facts about SSRIs adverse effects. Gastrointestinal adverse effects. 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors in the GI tract. 5-HT3 receptors in the brainstem and hypothalamus. CNS adverse effects. 5-HT2A receptor stimulation at the basal ganglia. 5-HT2A and 2C receptors are hypotheticallyContinue Reading

Glutamate receptors

Glutamate receptors

Overview of ionotropic (NMDA, AMPA, Kainate) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR).Continue Reading

Caution on olanzapine in adolescents

Continue Reading

Differences between tricyclic antidepressants and SNRIs mechanism of action

Images, mindmaps and tables integration of both TCAs and SNRIs MOA. Muscarinic, histaminic and alpha 1 receptors blockade determines TCAs Continue Reading

Serotonin (5-HT): receptors, agonists and antagonists

Serotonin (5-HT): receptors, agonists and antagonists

Serotonin receptors characteristics, classification and drugs that influence serotonergic transmission. Pharmacology review.Continue Reading

Drugs for CINV prophylaxis and treatment

This article overviews the pharmacology of drugs used for the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). A brief introduction on the pathophysiology is presented, to be followed by a discusssion on the different drug classes.Continue Reading

Clinical guidelines on CINV management

These are the latest guidelines on antiemetic managagement of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting published on The Oncologist. Below that, an article from Supportive Oncology discusses the most relevant changes made in the 2006 update.Continue Reading

How to survive your first night on call: PowerPoint presentation

This PowerPoint presentation has great suggestions and tips on how to handle a night on call. It is specially useful for junior physicians and covers real-life clinical situations you may encounter.Continue Reading

Pregabalin (Lyrica) not approved for fibromyalgia by the EMEA

EMEA didn’t approve treatment of fibromyalgia as a new indication for pregabalin (Lyrica).The CHMP was concerned that the benefits of Lyrica in fibromyalgia had not been shown in either the short or the long term.Continue Reading

Aripiprazole (Abilify) not approved for bipolar disorder

According to a press release, the Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) did not accept aripiprazole for the treatment of manic episodes in bipolar I disorder and for the prevention of  new manic episodes. According to the SMC, the manufacturer did not present a sufficiently robust economic analysis to gain acceptance. Psychiatrist Daniel Carlat from “The CarlatContinue Reading

Agomelatine (Valdoxan) for major depressive episodes

Agomelatine (Valdoxan, Melitor, Thymanax) is a recently marketed new drug for the treatment of major depression with a novel mechanism of action. It can be included in the class of  “other antidepressants”, or classified as a melatonergic drug. Mechanism of action Agomelatine acts as an agonist on melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptors. Additionally, it blocksContinue Reading

FDA video warning on metoclopramide and tardive dyskinesia

Video: patient safety warning on chronic use of metoclopramide and the risk of developing tardive dyskinesia.Continue Reading

Are you a visual learner interested in learning psychopharmacology? Click here to get our videos