The following animation depicts the mechanism of action of aminoglycosides. This antibiotic class includes drugs such as gentamicin, streptomycin (used for TB treatment), amikacin, among others.
Susceptible gram-negative organisms allow aminoglycosides to diffuse through porin channels in their outer membranes. These organisms also have an oxygen-dependent system that transports the drug across the cytoplasmic membrane. The antibiotic then binds to the 30S ribosomal subunit prior to ribosome formation .
There, it interferes with assembly of the functional ribosomal apparatus and/or can cause the 30S subunit of the completed ribosome to misread the genetic code. Polysomes become depleted, because the aminoglycosides interrupt the process of polysome disaggregation and assembly. [Note: The aminoglycosides synergize with β-lactam antibiotics because of the latter’s action on cell wall synthesis, which enhances diffusion of the aminoglycosides into the bacterium.]”
- Neomycin (Framycetin, Paromomycin, Ribostamycin)
- Kanamycin (Amikacin, Arbekacin, Bekanamycin, Dibekacin, Tobramycin)
- Hygromycin B · Spectinomycin
- Gentamicin (Netilmicin, Sisomicin, Isepamicin)
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